|The Symbol of Ulaanbaatar
||The Flag of Ulaanbaatar
The symbol of Ulaanbaatar city is a mythical Khangarid Bird or Garuda. The Garuda symbolizes stability and power. Therefore it symbolizes the prosperity of the city. The Garuda has a Soymbo a symbol of statehood and knowledge, on its forehead. In its right hand the Garuda is holding a key with vajra handle, a symbol of prosperity and openness, and in its left is a lotus flower, a symbol of peace, equality, and purity. In its talons it is holding a snake, a symbol of evil of which it is intolerant.
The flag of Ulaanbaatar is in color of the blue sky. The symbol of the city the Garuda is embroidered with golden tread on the white silk applique in the center of the blue flag. The flag symbolizes purity, respect of its people towards the statehood and prosperity of the city. The size of the flag is 1:1.5.
The Map of Ulaanbaatar
Ulaanbaatar - General Information
Districts of Ulaanbaatar
|Number of districts
|Number of khoroos (subdistricts)
||by January 2013
||Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time
|976 - country code
11, 21, 51 - area code
7023 - Nalaikh district code
7021 - Baganuur district code
|Vehicle registration code
||(УБ), (УН) 00-00 (sample)
||"УБ", "УН" stands for Ulaanbaatar
|Distance (From the Sukhbaatar's
Square, 0 km point) by km
Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia
, is located in the Tuul river valley elevated at 1,300m above the sea level. By 2011 statistics, the population of the city was counted at 1,300,000 people which accounts for almost 50% of the total Mongolian population
. Ulaanbaatar is the cultural, political, and financial heart of the country. Tuul river valley is one of the most fertile regions that nomadic tribes always wanted to establish their control over since the dawn of the time.
In 1639, in the territory of a present day Uvurkhangai aimag’s Burd sum, the first Bogd Jebtsundamba - Zanabazar (1635–1723) was proclaimed as the Mongolian Religious Leader and built his Ger Palace. That event is considered as the first establishment of the present Ulaanbaatar city. Even though Zanabazar was a lama, he lived like a nomad; therefore his ger palace called “Urguu” was actually a nomadic establishment, in essence of a nomadic town. The city changed location twenty-eight times, moving along the Selenge, Orkhon and Tuul rivers with each location being chosen ceremonically. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Since then it has been called Ikh Khuree or Da Khuree.
By the revolutionary movement of 1911, Mongolia had been freed from the Manchu domination, and Bogd Jebtsundamba the 8th was honored as Mongolian Ruler and renamed Ikh Khuree as Niislel Khuree. Niislel Khuree became the heart of the country’s economy, politics and religion with branches of Russian, Chinese and American companies. But in 1919, Chinese army has invaded Niislel Khuree and imprisoned Bogd khaan. In 1921, White Russian Baron Ungern took back Niislel Khuree from Kuomintang and started ruling the city. In 1921, Mongolian People’s Party was established and the Niislel Khuree was set free from the White Russians with the assistance of the Soviet Union and the People's Government was established.
In 1924, People’s Republic of Mongolia was officially declared and the Niislel Khuree was renamed as the city of Ulaanbaatar. The name Ulaanbaatar means "Red Hero". After the World War II, under the socialism with the help of Soviet Russia, old-styled districts were replaced into new districts with apartments and new buildings. The railway connecting Ulaanbaatar with Moscow and Beijing was built in 1956 and many apartment buildings, cinemas, theatres and museums were built around the same time. But many historically valuable temples and religious places were destroyed in the socialist transformation after the political repression of 1930.
According to the new Constitution of Mongolia which was adopted in 1992, it states the “Ulaanbaatar is the capital city of Mongolia” and the capital has its official flag and symbol.
Ulaanbaatar city is located on the shore of Tuul river, surrounded with the Bogd Khan, Bayanzurkh, Songino Khairkhan and Chingeltei Khairkhan Mountains, elevated at 1,351m above the sea level.
Bogd khan Mountain has many mountain passes with springs and small rivers such as Yargait, Deed Undur Uul, Ereen, Tusheet Gunii Nuruu, Bumbat, Chuluut, Tur Khurakh, Shajin Khurkh, Zalaa, Baga Tenger, Ikh Tenger, Zaisan, Bogino, Khuush, Arstat and Nukht etc. Uvurzaisan and Nogoon Modny Khyar mountain ranges and Turgenii and Uvurzaisan valleys lie in the south side of the mountain.
In the west side of the city lies the 1,662m elavated Songino Khairkhan mountain, the 1,652m elevated Dartsagt, the 1,520m elevated Bayan-Undur, Maikhan Tolgoi, Soyond Uul, Taishiriin Nuruu and Ulaan Yamaat mountains and the 1,691m elevated Takhilt Mountain. The 1,947m elevated Chingeltei Khairkhan Mountain is situated in the north of the city.
Furthermore, Dashchoinkhoryn, Khustyn, Goodoin, Gurvan Khandgait mountain ranges, Jimber mountain, 2,018m elevated Guyen Mountain and Servengiin mountain ranges also lie in the area.
In the east side of the city lie the great mountain passes of the Khojuult, Tsagduul, Tsagaan Temeet, Shar-Ovoot, Zurkh and Khoid Khia mountains, the 2,032m elevated Baits Mountain, the Artsat Zoo, Burkhan Zoo, Darkhantyn Zoo, Tsagaan Temeet, Ikh Amny, Berkhiin, Asgat Mountain Range, Dund Tsokhiot, Asgat, the 1,833m elevated Zurkh, Bayanzurkh Khairkhan and Ereen Gualin, the 2,197m elevated Orog Yamaat, Tsagaan Temeetiin Nuruu and Shijiriin Davaa, the 2,184m elevated Ulaan Khargantyn Gozgor, Yoltyn Davaa, Berkhiin Nuruu, Gatsuurt, Ikh Khuandii, Baga Deendiin, Uvur Gorkhiiin and Tereljiin etc.
The 1,845m elevated Tsogtchandmani Mountain, located on the eastern edge of the Ulaanbaatar city and the southwestern edge of the Khentii mountain ranges, is a dividing point of the Arctic, Pacific and the Central Asian Endorheic drainage basins. Therefore, it is not only Mongolian, but also world’s important drainage basin dividing point. Nalaikh district is rich with coal deposits, Arjanchivlin is rich with gold and lead deposits, Selbe river is rich with gold and iron deposits. In Elest river sand, and in different areas mud is plentiful.
Ulaanbaatar city has a monsoon-influenced, cold semi-arid climate that closely borders a subarctic climate therefore the weather is severely harsh with a long, bitterly cold and dry winters with the minimum temperature of -49 degrees Celsius. The city features brief, warm summers with the maximum temperature of 39°C, deviance is 88°C. Thus the city is the coldest capital city in the world.
The annual average air temperature is -3°C. The coldest month of the year is January with the average temperature of -26°C and the number of days with below -30°C degrees can be counted about 40. The city lies under the snow cover for about 130 days between November 10th and March 20th with about 18cm depth on average. Ulaanbaatar city is one of the capital cities in the world with the most number of clear sunny days in any given year, with 250 sunny days.
Ulaanbaatar city is considered to be one of the places with the least amount of wind in the country. The average wind speed is 4 to 6m/sec. The highest ever recorded wind speed was 40m/sec. The wind is milder in winter times whereas the spring is the windiest season. In Ulaanbaatar city, warm season lasts for 90 days from May 29th to September 1st, with above 0°C temperatures. The warmest month is July with the average temperature of 17°C. In summer the number of the days with +30°C or above temperature are about 10 and the days with the temperature of +10°C are about 80 which are usually occurs between June 6th and August 25th. The whole Ulaanbaatar city area lies in the Arctic Ocean basin.
The city lies in the zone of discontinuous permafrost. The northern part of the city has a dense forest taiga soil with discontinuous permafrost; powdery carbonated dark soil covers the northern mountains, and swamp soil with permafrost is spread along the Tuul river valley. Dominant type of soil in Bogd Khan mountain is a taiga soil. The meadow forest permafrost soil is spread through the higher parts of the mountain. Sediment rocks that come up on the surface along the edges of the mountain tops are well spread along in the range. Rivers and Lakes
Almost all of the rivers that flow through the city and around are part of the Tuul river basin. Largest inflow of the Tuul river is the Terelj river. Also rivers such as Uvur Gorkhi, Deendii, Ikh Khuandii, Gatsuurt, Bayantukhum, Uliastain Gol, Khoid Bayan, Uliastain Zuun, Uliastain Baruun and Uliastain Dund feed the Tuul river. Inflows of Selbe river are Belkhiin River, Shadivlan, Jigjid, Zaisan, Shargamorit, and Khandgait rivers.
The western inflows of the Tuul river are Tolgoit (Zuun and Baruun Salaa Tolgoit rivers) and Ikh Naran rivers. Elstiin Gol River, Nalaikh, Khuliin Gol rivers are the eastern inflows of the Tuul River. Inflows of the Khuliin Gol river are Shajin Khurakh, Tur Khurakh, Bumbat, Chuluut, Khurkhree, Baga Tenger, Ikh Tenger, Zaisan, and Turgen rivers. Gunjiin Gol river that takes source from the Buurlyn mountain at the north side of the Chingeltei Mountain, is the headwater of the Kharaa and Khuin rivers.
Hydro carbonated spring with calcium nitride exists in Khan-Uul District of Ulaanbaatar. Tsagaan Eregnii spring exists in Gatsuurt village. There are springs in Selbiin, Dambadarjaa and Ikh Tenger Mountains. The hydro carbonated Janchivlin spring with calcium and magnium, exists in Nalaikh district.
Local people consider and use the water form Bust Lake in Nalaikh district as spring water. For the common chemical composition of their water the rivers in and around Ulaanbaatar city area belongs to hydro carbonated type. Density of the river system is 0.01 - 0.05 km/km². Rivers freeze in around November and rip their ice covers off in around March.
Ulaanbaatar city lies in the forest steppe zone of Mongolia. Except for Songino Khairkhan Mountain in the west, all of the mountains have mostly larch dominated forest. Larch, pine and birch trees are also found in the woods. The forests are abundant in fragrant plants like Daguur-Terelj dahlia, Surgar juniper, bushes like blueberry, blackberry, sea-buckhorn, herbs like valerian, great burnet and roseroot etc. Bogd Khan Mountain is located at the boundaries of the Khentii Mountain taiga and Mongol Daguur forest steppe regions.
The Bogd Khan mountain region is dominated with segmented graminacoious plants and cyperales. The Bogd Khan mountains ecosystem is very vulnerable due to its location in industrial zone. A unique fir population forest of Khuitsuu taiga which borders directly with a steppe region is found only in 3 places all over Mongolia and among the 3 places is the Bogd Khan mountain. Nowadays the population of the fir trees is considerably decreasing. The Songinokhairkhan mountain’s flora is dominated with porcupine grass and other stipa like plants. The Tuul, Selbe, Uliastai and Gatsuurt river sides are populated with willow, poplar and wild cherry tree. Also a fir-wood found along the Gatsuurt river.
The Ulaanbatar city area with the Bogd Khan mountain in the south is a natural border of the Khentii taiga wild life bio diversity. As seen on the satellite image coniferous and deciduous forests are spread throughout the region excluding the Tuul river valley.
Mongolian marmot, alpine weasel, northern pica and long tailed gopher are abundant throughout the region. Endangered species like musk deer, deer, Argali the wild sheep, wild goat, boar, sable, lynx, wolf and fox are inhabit the area. Numerous bird species like scoter, black stork, buzzard, magpie, swallow, yellow tit and kite live in the area. Grey mullet, sanddab and pike fish live in the waters of the Tuul river.Transport
international and inter-urban: Ulaanbaatar is served by the Chinggis Khaan International airport located 18km south of the city, offers flights to and from Tokyo, Seoul, Berlin, Moscow, Irkutsk, Beijing, and Khukh Khot (Hohhot). The railroad is connected to the Trans-Siberian railway via Naushki and to the Chinese railway system via Ereen (Erlian). Info
: International FlightsInfo
: Domestic FlightsInfo
: International passenger trainInfo
: Domestic passenger train
Domestic and inter-urban: Ulaanbaatar is connected to most of the cities of Mongolia with unpaved roads. The project called Myangany Zam or Millennium Road is ongoing, and in 20 years all the roads in Mongolia will be paved. Info
: Inter city bus transportation
Intra-urban: Metropolitan Public Transportation Department is in charge of all public transportations within the city, offering different types of transportation services like primary, supporting, express, and taxi. Buses, trolleybuses and minivans in numerious routes along with the taxis are in service.
Chinggis khaan’s son Ugedei khaan started “Morin Urtuu” or the horse relay station which is considered to be the starting point of the Mongolian transportation sector. Since then until the beginning of the 20th century, “Morin Urtuu” and simple carts together with caravans were the only means of transportation in Mongolia.
In the beginning of the 20th century, modern vehicles entered into the transportation sector and in 1925, the first transportation organization “State Transportation Agency” has been established. In 1929, 3 vehicles were customized and started serving as public buses between Ulaanbaatar and Amgalanbaatar cities. In 1929 buses, in 1954 taxis and in 1987 trolleybuses were put into public transportation service. During the socialist period, public transportation usually consisted of buses and trolleybuses but nowadays taxis and mini buses (vans) are becoming the common means of transportation due to traffic jam.
One of the urgent problems facing the city transportation is the traffic jam as the numbers of automobiles on roads are considerably increasing in recent years. Therefore, the idea of building a metro line in Ulaanbaatar is drawing a consideration. Info
: Public transportation in Ulaanbaatar
Ulaanbaatar city has numerous museums with world famous valuable exhibits and Buddhist heritage sights. In Ulaanbaatar there are 14 historical and cultural sites that are listed under the State Protection including Gandantegchinlen Monastery, Megjid Janraisig Statue, Bogd khaan’s Winter Palace, Ger Shaped small temples, Dari Ekh Temple’s two stone columns, Geser Temple, Choijin Lama Temple dedicated to the brother of the Bogd khaan, Dambadarjaalin Monastery
, petroglyphs at Ikh Tenger and Gachuurt mountains, numerious tombs in Songino Khairkhan mountain, Chin Van Khanddorj’s house. Also, there are 11 places under the city’s preservation and protection: Zanabazar fine art museum building the first European style 2 storey apartment building, two stone lion statues on the Arslantai Bridge, two stone lion statues in front of the national history museum, some buildings of the Bogd khaan’s summer complex, Khunnu tombs in Belkhiin Am, two stone lion statues in front of the National University of Mongolia, rock scripts in Nukhtiin Am, where the patriotic lords held a secret meeting regarding the separation from the Manchu dominance and the Tsogtbadamjav’s house.
Located at the heart of Ulaanbaatar, the Sukhbaatar's Square is one of the famous tourist attractions. Just like Red Square of Moscow or Tiananmen Square of Beijing, the big events like parade during the big holidays organized at the Sukhbaatar's Square. During the socialist era, D.Sukhbaatar’s Tomb stood in front of the Government house on the square, but in 2004, the tomb had been moved to a cemetery. In 2006, dedicating to Chinggis khaan’s 800th anniversary, National Historical Gallery and Chinggis Khaan’s Statue
was put instead of the tomb. This statue became one of the largest Chinggis khaan’s statues within the city zone. Gandantegchinlen Monastery, located in the north of the city, is the center of Mongolian Buddhism. Janraisig statue, in the temple, was built with the donations from the public. The statue was built with 19 tons of copper gilded with gold and precious stones that came from historical places all over Mongolia.
To cover the statue with gold, 75,926 pieces of 5 by 5 golden sheets were used. 304 precious stones from all 21 aimags of Mongolia
were placed on the forehead and 2,286 precious stones were placed on the crown of Janraisig. 100m silk that came from India was used for its clothing. There are many historical places near the city as well. Located south of the city in Bogd Khan Mountain around 50 monuments exist and some 100,000 years old ancient homestad were found in the area of Bogd Khan mountain.
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Ulaanbaatar city is governed by the Citizen’s Representative Khural with four years in term. It has 45 delegates and 6 chiefs. The Governor of Capital city and Mayor of Ulaanbaatar is nominated from the Khural and the Prime Minister of Mongolia appoints the Mayor of the city for four years in term as well. Mayor reports his work progress to Citizen’s Representative Khural. Ulaanbaatar was divided into administrative divisions in 1924, for the first time. New constitution was adopted in 1992, thus new “Administrative and Territorial Units of Mongolia and Their Governing Bodies Law” was also adopted and according to its 18th order of August 19, 1992, Sukhbaatar district was divided into Chingeltei and Sukhbaatar, Oktyabri district of that time become Bayangol and Songinokhairkhan, and Nalaikh, Baganuur and Bagakhangai etc three new districts were formed, dividing the Ulaanbaatar City in 9 districts: Bayangol, Bayanzurkh, Chingeltei, Sukhbaatar, Songinokhairkhan, Khan-Uul, Nalaikh, Bagakhangai and Baganuur. Districts are divided into Khoroos, the smallest unit of administrative division of Ulaanbaatar. There are total of 152 khoroos in the city as of 2013. Nalaikh, Baganuur and Bagakhangai districts are located outside of Ulaanbaatar City boundaries.
The Implementing Agencies of the Governor's Office of Ulaanbaatar city:
1. Auto Road Agency 2. Air Quality Agency 3. Archive Agency 4. Tourism Agency 5. Department of Environment and Green Development 6. Education Agency 7. Sports Agency 8. Land Agency 9. State Specialized Inspection Agency 10. Veterinary Agency 11. Information Technology Agency 12. Social Insurance Agency 13. Registration Agency 14. Transportation Agency 15. Public Service Authority of Ulaanbaatar City 16. National Emergency Management Agency 17. Property Liaison Agency 18. Cultural Agency 19. Statistics Agency 20. Health Agency 21. Welfare Agency 22. Labor Agency 23. Tax Agency 24. Police Agency 25. Ulaanbaatar City Traffic Control Center 26. Authority for Development of Ger Districts 27. Department of Inter Audit 28. Authority for General Planning 29. Traffic Police Department of Ulaanbaatar 30. Procurement Policy Department 31. Department of Industry and Agriculture 32. Authority for Children and Family Development 33. Authority for Economic Development.
Any country in the world has its own architectural style. Ger
represents the unique architecture of Mongolia. Mongolians have been using ger for thousands and thousand years but not only because it is easier to move around, our ancestors invented it with a great deal of accuracy and sophistication. Ger is considered to be the most suitable type of dwelling for nomadic life style. Ger is compact, light, durable and easy to move around. Therefore the materials that are used to make a ger are all of an easy access like wood and felt. Ger consist of 2 elements, cone the roof and cross cones the round wall. This shape of a ger plays an important role in its construction as the roof absorbs the energy from the sun and transfers it into the ger and the round walls reduce the force of a wind blow keeping the ger warm. This type of construction design also can be seen in the construction of temples and monasteries.
The first European style 2 storey building was built in 1863 by the order of Russian Ambassador Ya.Shishmarev. It was the tallest building at that time. In the beginning of the 20th century, except for those few buildings built by Russian and Chinese merchants and the Bogd khaan’s Palace, most of the structures in the city were only gers. The Bogd khaan’s winter palace was built in 1905 according to the architectural drawing that was given as a gift from the Russian Tsar Nikolai the 3rd to Bogd khaan. As the country developed the number of buildings has increased and gers became obsolete. Since 1950, all kinds of buildings with different architectural styles were built. Whereas, the buildings built between 1950 and 1960 have classical style, those built between 1960 and 1980 have identical architectural style of the cities of the Soviet Union, since all the buildings during that time were built with the help of Soviets and majority of those buildings were 5-9 storey apartment blocks. But the buildings built since 2000, are reflected with the modern architectural design of the world. At the present, Ulaanbaatar city’s buildings have a reflection of all kinds of architectural designs from different countries like China, Russia, Korean and Southeast Asia, yet it makes the city unique.
One of the most interesting and old buildings in the city is the Gandantegchinlen Monastery
, where the main temple is 39m tall, as tall as 13 storey building. The four columns of the temple are made out of a solid single piece. It is amazing that Mongolians had managed to build 13 storey building back in 1910s. Especially considering that each of this 30m tall columns were erected with no use of modern machinery. GalleryPhoto
: The view of Ulaanbaatar-01, 2010-2011Photo
: The view of Ulaanbaatar-02, 2010-2011Photo
: The view of Ulaanbaatar-03, 2012Photo
: The view of Ulaanbaatar-Outskirts, 2010-2011